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Transit of Venus – NASA’s live coverage

NASA TELEVISION will air a live program starting at 5:30 p.m. US EDT Tuesday, June 5, showcasing the celestial phenomenon of the planet Venus trekking across the face of the Sun. The rare event, known as the Venus transit, will not occur again until 2117.

The transit occurs when Venus passes directly between Earth and the Sun. Viewers will see Venus as a small dot gliding slowly across our nearest star. Historically, viewed by Captain James Cook and other luminaries, this rare alignment is how we measured the size of our Solar System.

There have been 53 transits since 2000 B.C. The last time the event occurred was on June 8, 2004, watched by millions worldwide. This year, observers on six continents and a small portion of Antarctica will be in position to see at least part of it.

NASA TV coverage will include updates from NASA centres across the USA and locations from some of the 148 countries hosting viewing activities. Images taken of the transit from the International Space Station and NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Solar Dynamics Observatory also will be aired with scientists sharing their perspectives and the historical significance of the event.

NASA EDGE, a behind-the-scenes, informative webcast, will air the transit live from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This location offers the best viewing position of the entire transit.

More information about the worldwide events, safety precautions for viewing, educational content and social media activities:

http://venustransit.nasa.gov/

NASA TV streaming video, downlink and scheduling information:

http://www.nasa.gov/ntv

The public can follow the event on Twitter on #venustransit and download a free phone App:

http://venustransit.nasa.gov/2012/multimedia/apps.php

Adapted from information issued by NASA.

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Transit of Venus – viewing in the USA

ON TUESDAY AFTERNOON, June 5th (US time zone), everyone in the United States will have a chance to witness one of the rarest celestial phenomena known: a “transit of Venus”. Such an event occurs when the planet Venus passes almost exactly between the Earth and the Sun, and they are incredibly rare.

Since first predicted by the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler in the 17th century, only six transits of Venus have been observed. Weather permitting, this will be the seventh.

Transits of Venus occur at regular intervals that repeat over a 243-year period. Intervals between successive transits are 8 years, 105.5 years, 8 years, and 120.5 years. The next transit of Venus won’t occur until December 11, 2117, and it will not be visible from most of the USA.

Early transit of Venus expeditions

Kepler predicted the transit of December 7, 1631, but died before the event occurred. The next transit, on December 4, 1639, was observed by only two individuals, Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree, from England.

In 1677 Edmond Halley (of comet fame) observed a transit of Mercury from St. Helena Island and realised that such events, if observed from many widely-spaced sites, could provide a geometric measure of the scale of the Solar System. His work led to several far-flung expeditions to observe the Venus transits of June 6, 1761 and June 3, 1769. One of the British expeditions to the latter transit was led by Captain James Cook.

Results from these expeditions were mixed, but enough experience was gained to attempt observations of the next series in the 19th century.

The transits of December 9, 1874, and December 6, 1882, were met with an armada of scientific expeditions equipped with state-of-the-art astronomical instruments. The U.S. Congress funded and outfitted eight separate expeditions for each event and placed overall scientific direction of these teams under the command of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). Once again the results were inconclusive, but many of the instruments from these expeditions are still in the Observatory’s possession.

The 20th century saw no transits of Venus; the next one occurred on June 8, 2004. By this time the size of the Solar System had been well established, so observing the transit became more of an historical event than a scientific one.

Transit of Venus viewing for US citizens

This year’s transit will begin about 2.5 hours before sunset in the Washington, D.C., area at 6:04pm US Eastern Daylight Time. It will occur earlier in the day and at a higher altitude as one moves farther west, but no place in the “lower 48” will see the event in its entirety. Residents of Alaska, Hawai’i, and the U.S. Pacific Territories are the only Americans who will see the complete event.

At the USNO, we will once again attempt to observe the transit with one of our historic 5-inch Alvan Clark transit of Venus telescopes. This particular instrument, Number 856, successfully observed the transit of 1874 from Vladivostok, Siberia, and the 1882 transit from San Antonio, Texas.

It was employed to successfully observe the 2004 transit following restoration by the observatory’s instrument shop. If successful this year we will have the only instrument known to have observed four of the seven transits that humans have recorded.

Observing the transit will not require a telescope – the disc of Venus is large enough to be seen with the unaided eye. However, extreme precaution must be taken when observing the event or permanent eye damage and/or blindness will occur. The USNO strongly recommends that people wishing to observe the transit contact any of the local science centres, planetariums, or amateur astronomy clubs as they will have the proper equipment to enjoy this rare event. A listing of such regional organisations may be found on the USNO’s website:

http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/about-us/local-observatories-planetaria-and-clubs

Adapted from information issued by USNO.

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What’s up? Night sky for April 2012

Star trails over an observatory

The southern sky is full of wonderful treats for the stargazer. (This star trail photo by Iztok Boncina was made by keeping the camera shutter open.)

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere. (If you’re in the Northern Hemisphere, please see the video at the bottom of the page for What’s Up in your night sky.)

April 3

The Moon, now just over three-quarters full, will be about 11 Moon widths above and to the left of the bright blue star, Regulus, the brightest star of the constellation Leo. A little further below is what looks like a red star, but is actually the planet Mars. The colours of Regulus and Mars make a nice contrast. About 77.5 light years from Earth, Regulus is not one star but four, grouped into two pairs. Multiple star systems are very common throughout the Milky Way galaxy.

April 4

The Moon is still in the vicinity of Mars tonight, being above and to the right of the planet. Incidentally, when I use a term such as “vicinity”, it is not to be taken as suggesting the two bodies are physically near each other out there in space. Rather, they are simply within similar lines-of-sight from our vantage point on Earth.

April 4 sky view

April 4, 8:00pm. The Moon, Mars and the star Regulus will make an attractive triangle in the northern part of the sky. Note the colour difference between blue Regulus and ruddy Mars.

April 7

Full Moon occurs today at 5:19am Sydney time (19:19 Universal Time on April 6). In a similar fashion to its “encounters” with Regulus and Mars a few days earlier, tonight the Moon will be about six Moon widths to the right of another bright star, Spica, and about 10 Moon widths above the planet Saturn. Spica is the brightest star of the constellation Virgo; it is a blue giant star about 260 light years from Earth. This is a great time to see Saturn (see April 16), so it’s a good idea to use the nearby Moon to identify it.

April 8

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 358,311 kilometres.

April 10

This evening, take a look about 12 Moon widths below the Moon and you’ll see a reddish looking star that looks a bit like Mars. It’s the star Antares, and its name actually “rival of Mars”. Antares is the brightest star of the constellation Scorpius, and is a red supergiant star about 883 times bigger than our Sun!

Saturn

Saturn, as it appears through a backyard telescope. Image by Steve Massey.

April 13

It is Last Quarter Moon tonight at 8:50pm Sydney time (10:10 Universal Time).

April 16

Today the planet Saturn reaches what astronomers call “opposition”. This means that, from an Earthly perspective, it is the opposite direction to the Sun—so if you could look down on the Solar System from above you’d see the Sun, Earth and Saturn (in that order) in a straight line … although Saturn, of course, is much further from us than the Sun. The period around opposition is a considered a great time to view a planet, as it rises in the east around the same time as the Sun sets in the west, and is therefore nice and high in the sky by late evening.

April 19

If you’re an early riser, out to east this morning before sunrise you’ll see the very thin crescent Moon. Above and to its right is a bright looking star. Well that’s not a star; it’s the planet Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun.

April 19 sky view

April 19, 6:30am. The thin crescent Moon and the planet Mercury will be visible together in the eastern sky before sunrise.

April 21

New Moon occurs today at 5:18pm Sydney time (07:18 Universal Time).

April 23

Today the Moon will again reach the farthest point in its orbit, apogee, at a distance from Earth of 406,421 kilometres.

April 24

Today the Moon makes another apparent close approach to a star, this time Aldebaran, the brightest star of the constellation Taurus. The pair will be low in the western sky after sunset. Like Antares, Aldebaran too is a red star, but not a supergiant—it is only about 44 times the size of our Sun. It’s about 65 light years from Earth.

April 25

There’ll be a lovely astronomical pairing in this evening’s sky, with the Moon very close to Venus. The Moon is the second-brightest object in our night sky, and Venus is the third-brightest.

April 25 sky view

April 25, about 7:15pm. The thin crescent Moon and Venus will be close together in the western sky.

April 29

It is First Quarter Moon today at 7:58pm Sydney time (09:58 Universal Time). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you’re in the Northern Hemisphere, here’s a Jet Propulsion Laboratory video that details what you can see this month:

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU and Iztok Boncina / ESO.

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What’s up? Night sky for January 2012

Stargazers with telescopes at night

Summer nights are perfect for stargazing.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT) zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

January 1

It is First Quarter Moon today at 5:15pm AEDT. First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains  throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

January 3

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit from the Earth, which is called apogee. It’s distance from our planet will be 404,578 kilometres.

While you’re out looking at the Moon, you’ll notice a bright looking star above and to the left. Well, that’s not a star; it’s actually the planet Jupiter. If you have access to a telescope, or even a pair of 7×50 (or better) binoculars, train them on Jupiter and you should see up to four tiny pinpoints of light on either or both sides of the planet—these are the moons Galileo discovered, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. If you take a look again tomorrow night, you’ll see that their positions will have changed as they whiz around the planet.

And in fact, we’re only a few days away from the anniversary of their discovery. On the 7th of this month, it will be 402 years since Galileo spotted them!

January 5

Today the Earth reaches perihelion in its orbit around the Sun. Perihelion is the point in a solar orbit when the body in question (eg. Earth) is at its closest to the Sun. Perihelion occurs today at midday AEDT, at a distance between Earth and Sun of about 147,098,000 kilometres. (The opposite of perihelion is aphelion, which for Earth will occur on July 5, 2012 at a distance of about 152,098,000 kilometres.)

If you have a pair of binoculars, you’ll see a pretty sight tonight, with the soon-to-be-full Moon appearing to sit above a beautiful star cluster called the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters. When the Moon is not around and the sky is dark, most people can make out 6 to 7 of the Pleiades stars, although eagle-eyed stargazers can see a few more. There are actually hundreds of stars in this beautiful open star cluster, and it is also filled with beautiful whispy gas clouds, although the stars and the gas are not actually related to each other—we just happen to be seeing them at a time when the stars are drifting through the gas.

Diagram of Moon near Pleiades in January 5's night sky

This is the view in the evening of January 5, with the Moon sitting above the beautiful star cluster known as the Pleiades. A pair of binoculars will show the scene well. Tomorrow night the Moon will have shifted east, and will be near to Albebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus.

January 6

Tonight you might notice a fairly bright, reddish-looking star just above the Moon. This is Aldebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus.

January 9

Full Moon occurs today at 6:30pm AEDT.

January 12

Tonight, the Moon will appear above and to the right of a bright blue star. This is Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo.

January 14

In this morning’s pre-dawn sky out to the east, the Moon will appear above and to the left of the planet Mars, which looks like a ruddy-coloured star. As you gaze at it, spare a thought for the Mars Science Laboratory, which was launched a little under two months ago and which is due to reach the Red Planet on August the 6th this year.

January 16

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 8:08pm AEDT.

January 17

In this morning’s sky, the Moon will be just above and to the right of the planet Saturn, which looks like a bright star. Nearby is Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo.

Diagram showing the Moon near Spica and Saturn in January 17's night sky

The Moon will be near to both the star Spica and the planet Saturn (the bright yellowish "star" below the Moon) on January 17. If you have access to a small telescope, take a look at both the craters and mountains on the Moon and Saturn and its glorious rings.

January 18

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 369,887 kilometres.

January 20

In the early dawn sky, take a look for the Moon and you should see a reddish-looking star just above it. This is Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Compare Antares with Mars—do you think they look similar? The ancients thought so, and in fact the name Antares means “rival of Mars”.

January 23

New Moon occurs today at 8:39pm AEDT.

January 27

Tonight, there’ll be a lovely sight in the evening sky out to the west, with the crescent Moon paired with the bright planet Venus (about 20 Moon widths to its left).

January 30

This evening, the Moon meets up with Jupiter again, appearing below the planet in the northwestern part of the sky.

Also today, the Moon will again reach apogee again, at a distance from Earth of 404,323 kilometres.

Diagram showing the Moon near Jupiter in January 30's night sky

The Moon will sit just below the planet Jupiter in the evening sky of January 30.

January 31

And finally for January, we have a second First Quarter Moon, which occurs today at 3:10pm AEDT.

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Main image courtesy IAU.

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What’s up? The night sky for December 2011

Telescope dome at night

Stargazing is great fun, now that the warmer summer weather is here.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

December 2

It is First Quarter Moon today at 8:52pm Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains  throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

December 6

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit, apogee, at a distance from Earth of 405,412 kilometres. And if you take a look at the Moon this evening, you’ll see a bright ‘star’ above and to its right. That’s not a star—it’s actually the planet Jupiter!

December 9

Take a look at the Moon in this evening’s sky, and you’ll see a brightish star a little way out to its right. And yes, this one really is a star. It’s called Aldebaran, and it’s the brightest star in the constellation Taurus. Aldebaran is a red giant star roughly 44 times as big as the Sun, and is about 65 light-years from Earth.

December 10

Full Moon occurs today at 1:36am AEDT, and tonight everyone in Australia and New Zealand will experience a total lunar eclipse. See our separate lunar eclipse story for full details on how, when and where to see it.

Eclipses aside…although it looks very pretty high up there in the sky, astronomers, both amateur and professional, generally hate the full Moon. This is because its light tends to drown out many of the fainter objects they’re interested in seeing. (It does this by actually making the sky glow.) It’s also not a good time to look at the Moon itself through a telescope, as the overhead sunlight (as seen from the perspective of the Moon) doesn’t throw any shadows across the lunar surface—and shadows are what give the craters and mountains their 3D look.

Man looking through a telescope

The Moon looks great through a telescope, but you won't need one to see the total lunar eclipse on December 10, 2011.

December 17

If you’re up early today, look for the Moon and you’ll see that it seems to have two companions. A little way below and to its left is the star Regulus, and below and to its right is the planet Mars. Regulus is actually a quadruple star system, comprised of four stars in two groups of two, gravitationally bound to one another. But the main star is a young, blue star a little over three times the mass of the Sun, and about three to four times as big as the Sun too.

December 18

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 11:48am AEDT. The Moon is still near Mars in the sky, being above and to the right of the planet in the hours before dawn.

December 21

The Moon, a star and a planet make a nice triangle in this morning’s sky. The star is Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo, and the planet is Saturn. Saturn will be to the left of the Moon, and Spica will be above Saturn. Spica, a blue giant star, is the 15th brightest star in the night sky and is about 260 light-years from Earth.

December 22

There are two items of note for today. First, the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee, which is the opposite of apogee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 364,800 kilometres. And secondly, today marks the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. This is the day of the year when the Sun is highest in the sky.

December 25

New Moon occurs today at 5:06am AEDT.

December 27-28

The Moon is back in the western evening sky. Over these two nights, it’ll be paired up with the planet Venus—the duo will make a very attractive sight in the evening dusk.

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Story by Jonathan Nally. Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for November 2011

People looking at the evening sky

Late spring nights and mornings are ideal for stargazing, and there are some interesting things to see this month.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

November 3

It is First Quarter Moon today at 3:38am Australian Eastern Daylight Time. First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

November 9

Take a look in the evening sky and you’ll see the Moon with what looks like a bright star above and to its right. Well, that’s not a star, it’s the planet Jupiter. Also today, the Moon will reach the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, apogee, at a distance from Earth of 406,176 kilometres.

November 10

Take a look at the western horizon after sunset and you’ll see a pretty group comprising Venus, Mercury and the star Antares.

Looking at the Moon with a telescope

The Moon teams up with several planets during November

November 11

Full Moon occurs today at 7:16am Australian Eastern Daylight Time.

November 11-12

Out to the east in the early morning sky (pre-dawn) you’ll find a pair of celestial orbs that contrast each other nicely in colour. Ruddy coloured Mars will appear very close to Regulus, a blue giant star that is the brightest star in the constellation Leo.

November 19

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 2:09am Australian Eastern Daylight Time. If you’re up before dawn, take a look out to the eastern sky and you’ll see the Moon with the star Regulus close by, and the planet Mars about 4 degrees away as well.

November 23

Another attractive grouping, but quite low in the eastern sky before dawn (so you’ll need a clear horizon). There’ll be the Moon, plus the star Spica (the brightest star in the constellation Virgo) and the planet Saturn as well.

November 24

Today the Moon will be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee, which is the opposite of apogee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 359,691 kilometres.

November 25

New Moon occurs today at 5:10pm Australian Eastern Daylight Time.

November 27

Take a look out to the west just after sunset, and you might see the very thin crescent Moon below and to the right of the planet Venus.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU / TWAN / Babak /A. Tafreshi.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for August 2011

Stargazers with telescopes

This month, Saturn will be the planet to watch in the western part of the sky after sunset.

FOUR PLANETS ARE VISIBLE THIS MONTH, although you’ll have to be quick to spot Mercury, as it starts the month low on the western horizon after sunset and within about a week will have become lost in the Sun’s glare.

Slightly higher in the western sky after sunset is Saturn, shining brightly and visited by the Moon on the 4th.

Jupiter and Mars are still the luminaries of the morning sky—Jupiter high in the north, and Mars low in the north-east. Their brighter sibling, Venus, will not be visible this month, as it is on the opposite side of the Sun from us.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

August 1

Look for the very thin crescent Moon low in the west after sunset. The planet Mercury will be about seven Moon widths above and to the right. Mercury is becoming much harder to see now, and over the next week will sink lower and lower toward the horizon and become lost in the Sun’s glare. The innermost planet will reappear in our morning sky out to the east next month.

August 3

Today the Moon will be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee, at 7:00am. The distance between the two bodies will be 365,755 kilometres.

August 4

Look for the Moon and Saturn close together in the west in the early evening sky.

August 5

The Moon and the star Spica—the brightest star in the constellation Virgo—will appear close together tonight. The Moon will be about six Moon widths above the star.

August 6

It is First Quarter Moon today at 9:08pm. First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

August 8

Now almost three-quarters full, the Moon will be near the star Antares—the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Antares has a reddish colour, and to the naked eye it looks a bit like the planet Mars. In fact, its name means ‘rival of Mars’.

Stargazers

Make the most of the late-winter nights by doing some stargazing.

August 14

Full Moon will occur today at 4:58am.

August 16

If you’ve been wondering why Venus doesn’t appear to be in our evening or morning skies, it’s because it is lost in the glare of the Sun. Today marks its ‘superior conjunction’, which means that it is on the exact opposite side of the Sun from us.

August 17

Mercury, which has been lost in the glare of the setting Sun for a while now, today reaches ‘inferior conjunction’, which means that it is exactly between us and the Sun. Mercury will reappear low in the east in the morning sky next month.

August 19

Today the Moon will be at the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, called apogee, at 2:24am. The distance between the two bodies will be 405,159 kilometres.

August 21

Look out to the east this morning, and you’ll see the Moon and what looks like a very bright star above and to its left. That’s not a star; it’s the planet Jupiter. Even if you don’t have a telescope, a normal pair of binoculars should reveal up to four of Jupiter’s largest moons, looking like small pinpricks of light to one or both sides of the planets.

August 22

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 9:55pm.

August 26

If you’re an early riser, take a look out to the east and you’ll see the Moon very close to the planet Mars.

August 29

New Moon occurs today at 1:04pm.

August 31

Today the Moon will again be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, perigee, this time at 3:36am. The distance between the two bodies will be 360,857 kilometres.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for July 2011

Telescope inside a dome at night

Stargazing during winter is chilly, but the nights can often be crisp and clear. And there's plenty to see this month!

THE INNERMOST PLANET, Mercury, has delighted us in the morning sky for the past couple of months, but this month it makes a reappearance in our evening skies, in the west after sunset. It’ll be quite easy to see, above the horizon for around 100 minutes after the Sun sets at the beginning of the month, increasing to almost two-and-a-half hours after the Sun sets by the end of the month.

Also in the evening sky, to the north-west, is Saturn. The famous ringed planet will be on show during the first half of the night, setting around 11:00pm by the end of the month.

In the morning sky to the east, Jupiter and Mars are still putting on a show before sunrise.

Venus is too close to the Sun to be seen this month.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

July 1

There will be a partial eclipse of the Sun today, but you’ll have to be an albatross or maybe a seal in order to see it. That’s because the Sun’s shadow will fall across a remote area of ocean between South Africa and Antarctica. Unless there are some fishing boats or a scientific expedition in the area, it’s entirely possible that no one will witness this eclipse which, at its maximum, will see less than 10% of the Sun’s disc covered by the Moon. And speaking of the Moon, New Moon occurs today at 6:54pm Sydney time (08:54 Universal Time).

 

View of the night sky for July 3, 2011

July 3, 2011, 5:15pm: The thin crescent Moon will sit just above the planet Mercury in the western sky after sunset.

 

July 3

Take a look out to the west after sunset, and you should see the planet Mercury above the horizon, and above it will be the thin crescent Moon.

July 5

Earth reaches aphelion today (or July 4 in the western hemisphere), which is the farthest point from the Sun in our orbit. The distance between Earth and Sun will be 152.1 million kilometres.

There’ll be an interesting sight out to the east in the morning sky today. The planet Mars will appear close to the star Aldebaran. Both are of similar brightness, and both have similar colouring—a sort of orangey-red.

In this evening’s sky, the Moon will sit above the bright star Regulus. Regulus is the brightest star in the constellation Leo. The amazing thing about Regulus is that, although to the naked eye it appears to be one star, in reality it is composed of four stars grouped into two pairs, all gravitationally bound to each other! This sort of thing is not too uncommon—many other stars are members of double, triple or quadruple systems too.

Position of the Moon, Spica and Saturn on July 8, 2011

July 8, 2011, 7:15pm: The Moon will be bracketed by the planet Saturn and the star Spica, in the north-western sky.

 

 

July 8

It is First Quarter Moon today at 4:29pm Sydney time (06:29 Universal Time). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect. Also today, the Moon will be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee, at 12:05am (14:05 on July 7, Universal Time). The distance between the two bodies will be 369,565 kilometres. And finally, tonight the Moon will appear reasonably near the planet Saturn.

July 9

A little more than half full, the Moon will appear quite close to the star Spica tonight. Spica, a blue giant star, is the brightest star in the constellation Virgo and the 15th-brightest star in our night sky.

Position of the Moon and Antares on July 12, 2011

July 12, 2011, 8:00pm: High in the northern sky, the Moon and the star Antares (the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius) will appear close together.

 

 

July 12

The now almost-full Moon will appear quite close to the star Antares tonight. Antares means “the rival of Mars’, and it’s not hard to see why, as it’s ruddy colour makes it look just like the fourth planet from the Sun. Antares is a red supergiant star, 800 times bigger than the Sun!

Today, the eighth planet from the Sun, Neptune, has completed one full orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 1846. Neptune takes almost 165 years to complete one circuit of the Sun. Neptune is too faint to be seen with the naked eye, but it is within the range of medium-and-larger backyard telescopes, if you know exactly where to look. This chart, provided by the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, will help you to find it.

July 15

Full Moon occurs today at 4:40pm Sydney time (06:40 Universal Time).

July 20

Mercury reaches its greatest angle from the Sun today, so if you have a clear evening sky, why not take the opportunity to go out and spot it in the west after sunset?

Position of Mercury on July 20, 2011

July 20, 2011, 5:20pm: Mercury will be at its greatest angle from the Sun today, and visible in the west after sunset.

July 22

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit around the Earth, called apogee, at a distance of 404,356 kilometres at 8:48am Sydney time (22:48 on July 21, Universal Time).

July 23

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 3:02pm Sydney time (05:02 Universal Time).

July 24

Slightly less than half full, the Moon will appear close to the planet Jupiter in this morning’s sky. Jupiter will be about 12 Moon widths above the Moon. Look a little further east and you’ll see Mars too. In between will be the beautiful star cluster called the Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters. Use binoculars or a small telescope and you’ll be delighted with the view.

Position of the Moon, Jupiter and Mars on July 24, 2011

July 24, 2011, 6:20am: The Moon and two planets—Jupiter and Mars—will be visible in the north-eastern sky before sunrise. See if you can spot the Pleiades star cluster as well.

July 25-28

In the western sky after sunset, the planet Mercury will appear close to the star Regulus (see July 5 for more information on this star).

July 28

The crescent Moon will appear very close to the planet Mars in this morning’s sky. They’ll be separated by only three Moon widths.

July 31

New Moon occurs today at 4:40am Sydney time (18:40 on July 30, Universal Time).

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

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What’s up? Night sky for June 2011

Skywatchers with telescopes

Stargazers are gearing up for the June 16, 2011, total eclipse of the Moon.

THREE OF THE NAKED-EYE BRIGHTNESS PLANETS will be visible in the eastern sky before sunrise this month. These are Venus, Jupiter and Mars. Mercury has left the scene, having dropped down to the horizon and become lost in the glare of the Sun.

In the evening sky, Saturn is holding it’s own, shining high and bright.

The major sky event this month for Australian skywatchers, is the total eclipse of the Moon on the morning of June 16.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

June 2

New Moon occurs today at 7:03am Sydney time (June 1, 21:03 Universal Time). New Moon is the opposite of Full Moon, and means

June 7-8

The almost half-full Moon will be near the star Regulus (the brightest star in the constellation Leo) over these two days. On the 7th it will be to the left of Regulus, and on the 8th it will be above it.

June 9

It is First Quarter Moon today at 12:11pm Sydney time (02:11 Universal Time). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

June 10

Look for the Moon to the left of the planet Saturn in tonight’s evening sky.

June 11

Tonight the Moon will appear quite close to the star Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo.

June 12

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies will be 367,189 kilometres.

June 13

The planet Mercury has been getting lower and lower in our morning sky, and has been lost in the glare of the Sun for a couple of weeks. Today, it reaches “superior conjunction“, which means that it is on the opposite side of the Sun from us.

June 14

Look for the almost-full Moon to the left of the planet Antares in tonight’s evening sky. Antares is a red supergiant star, 800 times the size of our Sun!

Total lunar eclipse

Don't miss the total lunar eclipse on the morning of June 16, 2011.

June 16 – total eclipse of the Moon

Full Moon occurs today at 6:14am Sydney time (June 15, 20:14 Universal Time). But the big news for today is the total eclipse of the Moon, which for Australian observers will occur in the hours before sunrise. The Moon will be in the western sky, and will gradually move into the Earth shadow and become dark, dropping lower and lower toward the horizon. During a total eclipse, the Moon takes on a reddish hue—sometimes pale, sometimes intense. This occurs because some of the Sun’s light filters through Earth’s atmosphere and is refracted onto the Moon.

For Australian observers, there’s more information on the total lunar eclipse (including timings) at the IceInSpace site.

For New Zealand observers, please see the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand’s site.

June 18

Low in the east before sunrise, you’ll see bright Venus below and to the left of a ruddy-coloured star. This is Aldebaran, a giant orange-coloured star about 65 light-years from Earth.

June 22

Today is the Southern Hemisphere’s midwinter solstice, which means that the Sun is at its furthest north in the sky (at 3:17am Sydney time, or June 21 at 17:17 Universal Time). This is the day when the hours of sunlight are at their minimum.

Stargazer looking at the sky

Enjoying the evening sky

June 23

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 9:48pm Sydney time (11:48 Universal Time).

June 24

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit, apogee (the opposite of perigee), at a distance from Earth of 404,274 kilometres.

June 26

Have a look out to the east this morning, and you’ll see the crescent Moon quite near Jupiter.

June 29

Today the very thin crescent Moon will be just below the planet Mars in the pre-dawn eastern sky.

June 30

Finally, the very thin crescent Moon will appear above and to the left of the planet Venus. You can’t miss Venus – apart from the Sun and the Moon, it is the brightest object in the sky.

And finally, here’s the terrific Tanya Hill from the Melbourne Planetarium, with her Sky Notes for this month:

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for May 2011

Stargazers looking at the sky

May will be a great month for planet watchers, with four bright planets visible to the east before dawn.

THIS WILL BE A FANTASTIC MONTH for planet watchers, with a series of attractive close groupings in the eastern morning sky. Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter will be in the same part of the sky, and you’ll get the chance to watch their shifting positions as the month progresses.

Why do they appear to move around relative to each other? It’s because they’re on independent orbits about the Sun and travelling at different speeds. The Earth is moving around the Sun too, and our shifting perspective adds to the apparent sky motion. In fact, the word ‘planet’ comes from the Greek, and means ‘wandering star’.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

May 1

There’ll be a fantastic planetary get-together in this morning’s eastern sky. First, Jupiter and Mars will be just less than half a degree (roughly one Moon width) apart. Jupiter will be the brighter, whitish-coloured one on the right, with ruddy-coloured Mars on the left. Also present will be the crescent Moon … below and to the left of the planet Venus, and left of the planet Mercury, and above and to the left of the Jupiter-Mars pair. It’ll be a fantastic sight! Why not try taking a photo of it?

May 3

New Moon occurs today at 3:51pm Sydney time (06:51 Universal Time).

The Moon

The Moon is always a popular target for stargazers.

May 7

The planets Venus and Mercury will be side-by-side in this morning’s eastern sky, only 1.5 degrees apart (about three Moon widths).

May 8

Mercury, the innermost planet, will be at its greatest angular distance (27 degrees) from the Sun this morning.

May 11

It is First Quarter Moon today at 5:33am Sydney time (May 10, 20:33 Universal Time). The period around First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

Also this evening, the Moon will appear close to Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo. The amazing thing about Regulus is that, although to the naked eye it appears to be one star, in reality it is composed of four stars grouped into two pairs, all gravitationally bound to each other! This sort of thing is not too uncommon, as many other stars are members of double, triple or quadruple systems too.

May 12

Another planetary grouping in this morning’s eastern sky, with Venus only half a degree (one Moon width) to the right of Jupiter, and Mercury about three Moon widths above and to the left.

May 14

This evening the almost-full Moon will be perched about 7 degrees above the planet Saturn.

May 15

Tonight the Moon, just a smidge short of being full, will be only 1.5 degrees (about three Moon widths) above and to the right of the star Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo. Spica is a blue giant star, 7.4 times as big as our Sun, and the 15th-brightest star in our night sky. Also today, the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit around the Earth, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies will be 362,133 kilometres.

Diagram showing planets in the morning sky

Four planets are visible in the morning sky. This diagram shows the view on May 16.

May 16

Yet another arrangement of planets in our morning sky to the east. Venus will be about three Moon widths below and to the left of Mercury, about eight Moon widths below and to the right of Jupiter, and about six Moon widths above ruddy-coloured Mars.

May 17

Full Moon occurs today at 8:09pm Sydney time (11:09 Universal Time).

May 18

Tonight, look for the Moon about four degrees (eight Moon widths) below and to the left of Antares. Antares is a red supergiant star, the brightest star in the constellation Leo and the 16th-brightest star in our night sky. And get this—Antares is 800 times the diameter of our Sun, so you can see why they call it a supergiant!

May 22-31

Venus, Mars and Mercury will do a dance with each other in the morning sky over the final week of the month, in close proximity to one another. Have a look each morning and see how the arrangement has changed.

May 25

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 3:52am Sydney time (May 24, 18:52 Universal Time).

May 27

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit, apogee, at a distance from Earth of 405,003 kilometres.

May 30-31

The crescent Moon will join the Mars, Venus, Mercury triplet in the morning sky.

And here’s Melbourne Planetarium‘s fabulous astronomer, Tanya Hill, to show us what the month’s sky will look like in motion:

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU / TWAN / Babak A. Tafreshi / Andreas O. Jaunsen / IYA2009 / Galileoscope.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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