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What’s up? Night sky for January 2013

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT) zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

January 2

If you’re an early riser, take a look out to the north-west and high up you’ll see a bright star near the Moon. This is Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo. Actually, Regulus is not one star but four, grouped into two pairs. Multiple star systems are very common throughout the Milky Way galaxy.

The Moon will appear near the bright star Regulus on January 2.

The Moon will appear near the bright star Regulus on January 2.

And today the Earth reaches perihelion in its orbit around the Sun. Perihelion is the point in a solar orbit when the body in question (eg. Earth) is at its closest to the Sun. Perihelion occurs today at midday AEDT, at a distance between Earth and Sun of about 147,098,089 kilometres. (The opposite of perihelion is aphelion, which for Earth will occur on July 5, 2012 at a distance of about 152,097,351 kilometres.)

January 5

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 2:58pm Sydney time (03:58 Universal Time).

January 6

If you’re up very early this morning (from 2:00am onwards), you’ll see a bright star appearing to almost touch the Moon. This Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo; it is a blue giant star about 260 light-years from Earth. And don’t miss tomorrow’s morning sight…

January 7

This morning, the Moon has moved along a bit in its orbit, and no longer appears to be near Spica. Instead, it appears to hover just above what appears to be another bright star, but which is instead the planet Saturn. If you have a small telescope, or can borrow someone else’s, take a look at Saturn – you’ll see the huge rings tilted nicely to our line of sight, and – depending on the power of your telescope – you might also be able to make out a couple of the planet’s moons, although they’ll only look like bright pinpricks of light.

January 7: If you're an early riser, take a look at the Moon and you'll see what appears to be bright star just below it. Well, that's actually not a star but the ringed planet Saturn.

January 7: If you’re an early riser, take a look at the Moon and you’ll see what appears to be bright star just below it. Well, that’s actually not a star but the ringed planet Saturn.

January 9

Again, the Moon has moved along in its orbit, and is now quite distant from both Spica and Saturn. This morning it appears near the red star Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Antares is a red supergiant star about 883 times bigger than our Sun, located about 470 light-years from us.

January 10

This morning the Moon, now a thin crescent, can be seen above what looks like a very bright star. Actually, it’s the planet Venus, low on the horizon. Venus will remain low in the east before dawn until the middle of February, when it will have moved too close to the Sun to be visible.

The Moon today will be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 360,046 kilometres.

January 12

New Moon occurs today at 6:44am Sydney time (19:44 Universal Time on January 11).

January 14-27

If you have dark skies and are a little bit lucky, you might spot a few meteors between these dates, emanating from the southern sky. The Eta Carinid meteor shower occurs at this same time every year, but it’s not a very good one compared with others – you might be lucky to see a few meteors per hour, between midnight and dawn.

January 19

It is First Quarter Moon today at 10:45am Sydney time (23:45 Universal Time on January 18). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

January 21: The Moon, Jupiter and the Pleiades star cluster will all be close together in the evening sky.

January 21: The Moon, Jupiter and the Pleiades star cluster will all be close together in the evening sky.

January 21

In tonight’s evening sky, the Moon will be situated quite near a famous cluster of stars, called the Pleiades or Seven sisters. When the Moon is not around and the sky is dark, most people can make out 6 to 7 of the Pleiades stars, although eagle-eyed stargazers can see a few more. With the Moon tonight being more than half full, it might be a little harder to see them. But if you have a pair of binoculars or a small telescope, take a look and you’ll be rewarded with a lovely sight – there are actually hundreds of stars (only some of them are visible through small optical instruments) in this beautiful “open star cluster“, and it is also filled with beautiful whispy gas clouds, although the stars and the gas are not actually related to each other—we just happen to be seeing them at a time when the stars are drifting through the gas.

And what’s that bright object just to the right (east) of both the Moon and the Pleiades? That’s actually the planet Jupiter.

January 22

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, apogee, at a distance of 405,312 kilometres. Take a look at it, and you’ll see what looks like a bright star just above it – it’s actually the planet Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System. Even a pair of binoculars will begin to show its size and shape, as well as up to four of its moons. A small telescope will reveal the different cloud bands that colour its upper atmosphere.

January 27

Full Moon occurs today at 3:38pm Sydney time (04:38 Universal Time).

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for January 2012

Stargazers with telescopes at night

Summer nights are perfect for stargazing.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT) zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

January 1

It is First Quarter Moon today at 5:15pm AEDT. First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains  throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

January 3

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit from the Earth, which is called apogee. It’s distance from our planet will be 404,578 kilometres.

While you’re out looking at the Moon, you’ll notice a bright looking star above and to the left. Well, that’s not a star; it’s actually the planet Jupiter. If you have access to a telescope, or even a pair of 7×50 (or better) binoculars, train them on Jupiter and you should see up to four tiny pinpoints of light on either or both sides of the planet—these are the moons Galileo discovered, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. If you take a look again tomorrow night, you’ll see that their positions will have changed as they whiz around the planet.

And in fact, we’re only a few days away from the anniversary of their discovery. On the 7th of this month, it will be 402 years since Galileo spotted them!

January 5

Today the Earth reaches perihelion in its orbit around the Sun. Perihelion is the point in a solar orbit when the body in question (eg. Earth) is at its closest to the Sun. Perihelion occurs today at midday AEDT, at a distance between Earth and Sun of about 147,098,000 kilometres. (The opposite of perihelion is aphelion, which for Earth will occur on July 5, 2012 at a distance of about 152,098,000 kilometres.)

If you have a pair of binoculars, you’ll see a pretty sight tonight, with the soon-to-be-full Moon appearing to sit above a beautiful star cluster called the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters. When the Moon is not around and the sky is dark, most people can make out 6 to 7 of the Pleiades stars, although eagle-eyed stargazers can see a few more. There are actually hundreds of stars in this beautiful open star cluster, and it is also filled with beautiful whispy gas clouds, although the stars and the gas are not actually related to each other—we just happen to be seeing them at a time when the stars are drifting through the gas.

Diagram of Moon near Pleiades in January 5's night sky

This is the view in the evening of January 5, with the Moon sitting above the beautiful star cluster known as the Pleiades. A pair of binoculars will show the scene well. Tomorrow night the Moon will have shifted east, and will be near to Albebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus.

January 6

Tonight you might notice a fairly bright, reddish-looking star just above the Moon. This is Aldebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus.

January 9

Full Moon occurs today at 6:30pm AEDT.

January 12

Tonight, the Moon will appear above and to the right of a bright blue star. This is Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo.

January 14

In this morning’s pre-dawn sky out to the east, the Moon will appear above and to the left of the planet Mars, which looks like a ruddy-coloured star. As you gaze at it, spare a thought for the Mars Science Laboratory, which was launched a little under two months ago and which is due to reach the Red Planet on August the 6th this year.

January 16

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 8:08pm AEDT.

January 17

In this morning’s sky, the Moon will be just above and to the right of the planet Saturn, which looks like a bright star. Nearby is Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo.

Diagram showing the Moon near Spica and Saturn in January 17's night sky

The Moon will be near to both the star Spica and the planet Saturn (the bright yellowish "star" below the Moon) on January 17. If you have access to a small telescope, take a look at both the craters and mountains on the Moon and Saturn and its glorious rings.

January 18

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 369,887 kilometres.

January 20

In the early dawn sky, take a look for the Moon and you should see a reddish-looking star just above it. This is Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Compare Antares with Mars—do you think they look similar? The ancients thought so, and in fact the name Antares means “rival of Mars”.

January 23

New Moon occurs today at 8:39pm AEDT.

January 27

Tonight, there’ll be a lovely sight in the evening sky out to the west, with the crescent Moon paired with the bright planet Venus (about 20 Moon widths to its left).

January 30

This evening, the Moon meets up with Jupiter again, appearing below the planet in the northwestern part of the sky.

Also today, the Moon will again reach apogee again, at a distance from Earth of 404,323 kilometres.

Diagram showing the Moon near Jupiter in January 30's night sky

The Moon will sit just below the planet Jupiter in the evening sky of January 30.

January 31

And finally for January, we have a second First Quarter Moon, which occurs today at 3:10pm AEDT.

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Main image courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for April 2011

Amateur astronomers using a telescope at dusk

Autumn nights are ideal for stargazer. Autumn mornings too, with some planets making a welcome return to our pre-dawn skies.

LIKE LAST MONTH, Venus is the star of the show in April, high in the eastern sky before sunrise. You can’t miss it—it is big and bold and brilliant.

Mercury makes a reappearance in the eastern morning sky from mid-month. As the April progresses, you’ll notice it rising higher and higher in the sky.

Ditto for Mars, which has been lost from view in the glare of the Sun for a while, but is making a reappearance in the morning sky this month, very low down in the east.

The largest planet in the Solar System, Jupiter, will also be low down on the eastern horizon before sunrise during April.

So that’s four planets all quite near to one another in roughly the same part of the sky! Definitely worth getting up early for.

Shifting to the evening sky, and the ringed planet Saturn will be bright and bold in the eastern sky after sunset.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with just the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times shown here are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

April 1

Have a look out to the east before sunrise and you’ll see the Moon just below the planet Venus. You can’t miss Venus—apart from the Moon and the Sun, it’s the brightest thing in the sky!

April 2

Today the Moon will be at the farthest point in its orbit, called apogee, at a distance from Earth of 406,657 kilometres.

Also, you’ll notice that compared to yesterday the Moon has moved downwards in the sky and away from Venus. Now, it will be closer to the planet Mars, which is fainter than Venus and a ruddy colour.

April 3

New Moon occurs today at 11:32pm Sydney time (April 3, 14:32 Universal Time).

April 4

The planet Saturn reaches opposition today. This is a fancy way of saying that, from an Earth-bound observer’s point of view, it is in the opposite side of the sky to the Sun. In other words, if you could look down on the Solar System from above, the Sun, Earth and Saturn would be in a line, with Earth in the middle. Opposition generally is a good time to view a planet.

Stargazers with telescopes

Take the opportunity to get out and do some stargazing before the weather becomes too cold

April 7

The planet Jupiter reaches conjunction with the Sun today, which is a fancy way of saying that it is on the other side of the Sun as seen from Earth…although, being on the other side of the Sun, we can’t actually see it. You can think of conjunction as being the opposite of opposition (see April 4 above), so to speak. If you could look down on the Solar System from above, you’d see Jupiter, the Sun and the Earth in a line, with the Sun in the middle.

April 10

Today, the innermost planet, Mercury, reaches ‘inferior conjunction’. This is another kind of conjunction, again signifying that certain celestial bodies are in a line. In this case it is the Sun, Mercury and the Earth in a line, with Mercury in the middle. This makes it impossible to see the tiny planet, as it is lost in the glare of the Sun.

On certain special occasions, the tilt of Mercury’s orbit means that it can be seen crossing the face of the Sun when it is at inferior conjunction, in an event known as a transit. That’s not the case here—the next one will be in 2016.

April 11

It is First Quarter Moon today at 9:05pm Sydney time (April 11, 12:05 Universal Time). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

April 14

The almost-full Moon will appear close to the star Regulus in this evening’s sky. Regulus is a large, blue star, and is the brightest star in the constellation Leo.

April 17

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee, which is the opposite of apogee (see April 2). The distance between the two bodies today will be 358,090 kilometres.

Still on the Moon…take a look slightly below and to the left, and you’ll see a bright whitish-yellowish star. Well, that’s not a star, it’s the planet Saturn. If you have a telescope, or have a friend who has one, zero in on it and you’ll get a lovely view of its magnificent rings.

April 18

Full Moon occurs today at 11:44am Sydney time (April 18, 02:44 Universal Time). You won’t actually be able to see the Moon at that time, as it will be below the horizon. But take a look at sunset, and you’ll see that as the Sun sets in the west, the big, bright Moon will rise in the east.

April 20

Two planets get to say hello to each other this morning. In the eastern sky before sunrise, Mars and Mercury will appear close to each other. Be warned, though, that they will be very low down toward the horizon, so you’ll need a clear view if you’re to see them.

Over the next few weeks, four planets will be seen together in the morning sky. Here’s a short video from Tanya Hill, astronomer at the Melbourne Planetarium, explaining what we can expect to see:

April 21

Today will be an interesting to demonstrate to yourself how the Moon moves through the sky. If you get up in the morning while it’s still dark, take a look slightly above the Moon and you’ll see a ruddy-coloured star. That’s Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Remember that view. Now, go back outside later today in the mid-evening and find the Moon again, and you’ll see that the separation between the two has increased. This shows you how the Moon has trundled along a bit in its orbit throughout the day.

April 25

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 11:47pm Sydney time (14:47 Universal Time).

April 30

Today the Moon will again reach the farthest point in its orbit, apogee, at a distance from Earth of 406,038 kilometres. Take a look out to the east this morning and you’ll see the crescent Moon with Venus, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter (refer to the video above).

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? September’s night sky

The Moon and planets for September 2010

Venus and Mars are prominent in the western sky during September, and Jupiter is shining away in the eastern sky. Saturn is low in the western sky after sunset, and sinks lower and lower as the days go past. By the end of the month it will have dipped below the horizon and we’ll have to wait until later in the year for it to make its reappearance. Unfortunately, Mercury is lost in the glare of the Sun this month.

Sep 1

The Moon will be near the star cluster known as the Pleiades, in the constellation Taurus. You’ll have to be up early though, as this takes place in the early morning hours. By tomorrow morning (Sep 2), the Moon will have moved along a bit in its orbit and it will no longer appear next to the cluster.

The Pleiades star cluster

The Pleiades star cluster

The Pleiades is also known as the Seven Sisters, as people with average eyesight can usually make out seven of the stars with the unaided eye (from a reasonably dark location of course; not standing under a streetlight). Some people with really good eyesight can make out a few more.

In fact, the Pleiades has hundreds of stars, as shown by the beautiful image at right. You’ll also see that it seems to have a lot of wispy gas clouds too. Well, the gas and the stars are not actually connected, although they are in the same region of space. The stars are actually slowly passing through the gas clouds as a bunch, and we just happen to be living at the right time in history for us to see them together like this.

By the way, the next time you see a Subaru car drive past, take a look at the brand badge on the grill—you’ll see that it is a group of stars. Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades!

SpaceInfo sky view for September 5, 2010

September 5, 2010: The Moon near Castor and Pollux as seen from the Southern Hemisphere (left) and Northern Hemisphere (right).

Sep 2

Tonight is Last Quarter Moon, which is halfway between Full Moon and New Moon.

Sep 5

Before sunrise, the Moon will seem to be sitting above (or below, for Northern Hemisphere stargazers) two reasonably bright stars. These are Castor and Pollux, the twin stars of the constellation Gemini.

Sep 8

Tonight is New Moon, which is halfway between Last Quarter and First Quarter.

Also tonight, the Moon will be at its closest to Earth for the current lunar orbit, being 357,191km away. The Moon travels in an elliptical orbit, so sometimes it is closer and sometimes it is further away. When it is at its closest, like tonight, we say it is at “perigee”. The furthest point is called “apogee”, and this month it will occur on the 21st.

Sep 9

For Southern Hemisphere stargazers, if you look out to the west after sunset, you’ll see the crescent Moon just near what looks to be a reasonably bright star. In fact, it’s the famous ringed planet Saturn. If you have a small telescope, or know someone who does, take a look—you should be able to see its rings slightly tilted, and you should also be able to make a few of its moons.

Spaceinfo sky view for September 11, 2010

September 11, 2010: the Moon will be near Venus and Mars.

Sep 11

Tonight, the thin crescent Moon will appear to hover right between Mars and Venus. It’ll be a really beautiful sight. And it’ll be easy to tell which planet is which—Venus is much brighter and a whitish colour; Mars is dimmer and a ruddy orange colour.

The star Spica (the brightest star in the constellation Virgo) will be nearby too.

At this time, the Moon will have just passed its “new Moon” phase—the opposite of full Moon—and will be heading toward first quarter on the 15th.

Sep 14

The Moon will appear close to the star Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius (often called Scorpio). Antares is a huge, red supergiant star. If you compare the colouring between Antares and the planet Mars, you’ll see that they are very similar. And that’s how Antares got its name—the ancient Greek name for Mars is Ares, and Antares means “rival of Mars”.

Sep 15

Tonight is First Quarter Moon, which is halfway between New Moon and Full Moon.

Sep 21

The Moon is at apogee today (see note for Sep 8), at a distance of 406,167km.

The planet Jupiter is at opposition. This means that the Sun and Jupiter are on exactly opposite sides of the Earth…the Sun one way, Jupiter exactly 180 degrees the other way.

The upshot of this is that as the Sun sinks below the horizon in the west at sunset, Jupiter rises over the horizon in the east. This means that the planet will be in the sky the whole night, from sunset through to tomorrow’s sunrise, giving you a full night to observe it.

The time of a planet’s opposition usually is very close to another milestone…it’s closest approach to Earth during that particular orbit. And when a planet is at its closest, it looks bigger through a telescope and therefore better studies can be made of it.

So putting the two together, opposition and closest approach, and you can see why astronomers look forward to these times to do their observations.

SpaceInfo sky view for September 23, 2010

September 23, 2010: the Moon will be near Jupiter

Sep 23

It’s Full Moon tonight! As the Sun goes down in the west, the Moon will rise over the eastern horizon. And you’ll see a bright looking “star” nearby—that’s not a star, it’s actually the planet Jupiter. If you have a medium sized pair of binoculars, or a small telescope, take a look at the giant planet—you should be able to see from one to four of its largest moons, and with a telescope you should be able to make out some of its atmospheric “bands”. Jupiter’s four largest moons are called the Galilean moons, after Galileo who first saw them just over 400 years ago.

It’s also the Equinox today—the Spring Equinox for those in the Southern Hemisphere, and the Autumn or Fall Equinox for those in the Northern Hemisphere.

The Equinox means that the Sun “crosses” the celestial equator, at this time of year going from north to south, heralding the coming of Spring in the Southern Hemisphere and Autumn or Fall in the Northern Hemisphere.

SpaceInfo sky view for September 29, 2010

September 29, 2010: the Moon will be near the Pleiades star cluster and the star Aldebaran.

In reality, the Sun isn’t moving—it’s the combination of the Earth’s tilt and the position of the Earth in its orbit that makes the Sun appear to move north and south in the sky during the course of the year.

Sep 29

Twenty-eight days since it was last there (see Sep 1), the Moon will be back near the Pleiades star cluster in the constellation Taurus. But it won’t be in exactly the same position—this time, it’ll be nestled between the Pleiades and red Aldebaran, the brightest star in Taurus.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, please use the feedback form below. Happy stargazing!

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz