RSSAll Entries Tagged With: "troposphere"

Rocket volley to study the atmosphere

NASA SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED five suborbital sounding rockets March 27 from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia as part of a study of the upper level jet stream.

The first rocket was launched at 4:58am US EDT and each subsequent rocket was launched at 80 second intervals. Each rocket released a chemical tracer that created milky, white clouds at the edge of space.

The goal of the Anomalous Transport Rocket Experiment (ATREX) was to improve understanding of the process that drives fast-moving winds high in the thermosphere.

Tracking the way the clouds move can help scientists understand the movement of the winds some 110 kilometres up in the sky, which in turn will help create better models of the electromagnetic regions of space that can damage man-made satellites and disrupt communications systems.

Winds up high

Fiery trails from four of the five sounding rockets are clearly visible in the time-lapse photograph (bottom of this page) of the launch. The other image (below) shows two of the clouds left in the wake of the experiment; the rockets released trimethyl aluminium, a substance that burns spontaneously in the presence of oxygen.

The harmless by-products of this glowing reaction were visible to the naked eye as far south as Wilmington, North Carolina; west to Charlestown, West Virginia; and north to Buffalo, New York. Both photographs were taken near the launch site at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

Throughout the experiment, researchers used specialised cameras in North Carolina, Virginia, and New Jersey—as well as temperature and pressure instruments on two of the rockets—to monitor the clouds.

By measuring how quickly the clouds move away from each other and integrating that information into atmospheric models, they hope to improve their understanding of the 320 to 480 kilometre winds in the thermosphere.

ATREX experiment clouds

Each ATREX rocket released a chemical that reacts with oxygen, forming milky white clouds in the upper atmosphere.

First noticed by scientists in the 1960s, the winds are thought to be part of a high-altitude jet stream that’s distinct from the one lower in the troposphere, where commercial aircraft fly. Observing the turbulence produced by these winds should make it possible to determine what’s driving them.

An improved understanding of the upper jet stream will make it easier to model the electromagnetic regions of space that can damage satellites and disrupt communications systems. The experiment will also help explain how the effects of atmospheric disturbances in one part of the globe can be transported to other parts of the globe in a mere day or two.

The launches are part of a broader sounding rocket programmeat NASA that conducts approximately 20 flights a year from launch sites around the world.

The trails of the five ATREX sounding rockets captured in a time-lapse photo.

The trails of the five ATREX sounding rockets captured in a time-lapse photo.

Photographs courtesy NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. Text adapted from information issued by Karen Fox and Adam Voiland, NASA Earth Observatory.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

Like this story? Please share or recommend it…

Gallery — Moon through the murk

ISS view of Earth's limb with the Moon in the background

Photo from the International Space Station shows the layers of Earth's atmosphere, with the Moon in the far background.

THIS STUNNING PHOTOGRAPH taken from the vantage point of the International Space Station, shows us what the layers of Earth’s atmosphere look like when seen edge on.

The darkest patch at the bottom of the image is likely to be cloud cover, showing a characteristic unevenness to its upper limits.

Just above that is an orange-red glow that marks the extent of the troposphere, the thick, lowest layer of the atmosphere that reaches up from the surface. The troposphere is where pretty much all of our weather occurs.

Just above the troposphere is a thinner, brown layer. This is the tropopause, which separates the troposphere from the next layer up, the stratosphere.

Indeed, the next layer we see in the image—a whitish-grey colour—is probably part of the stratosphere.

Above that are the topmost layers of the atmosphere—the mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere—which gradually fade from a pale blue into the black of space.

The gases and aerosols (tiny particles) in each atmospheric layer are good at filtering out particular colours in the light spectrum, and that’s why they appear to contrast each other so well.

Finally, in background we can see the Moon, 384,400 kilometres away, but seeming to be a lot closer.

See the full-size image here.

Story by Jonathan Nally. Astronaut photograph provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Centre.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

Like this story? Please share or recommend it…

Moon sinks into the gloom

ISS image of the Moon

An astronaut's view of the Moon, seen through the upper layers of Earth's atmosphere.

PHOTOGRAPHED BY an Expedition 28 crewmember aboard the International Space Station, this image shows the Moon at centre, with the limb (edge of the atmosphere) of Earth near the bottom transitioning into the orange-coloured troposphere, the lowest and most dense portion of our planet’s atmosphere.

The troposphere ends abruptly at the tropopause, which appears in the image as the sharp boundary between the orange- and blue-coloured parts of the atmosphere.

Adapted from information issued by NASA.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

Like this story? Please share or recommend it…