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Watch NASA’s celebrations of the Apollo 11 landing

NASA’s APOLLO 11 CREW landed on the Moon July 20, 1969 (July 21 in Australia). The world watched 45 years ago as astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set their lunar module Eagle down in the Sea of Tranquility, while crewmate Michael Collins orbited above in the command module Columbia.

The agency is commemorating Armstrong’s “one giant leap for mankind” through a number of events, as well as on the agency’s website and NASA Television.

Buzz Aldrin stands next the lunar module Eagle on the surface of the Moon, July 1969.

Buzz Aldrin stands next the lunar module Eagle on the surface of the Moon, July 1969.

On July 21 at 12:39pm Monday, Eastern Australian time, (Sunday at 10:39pm, US EDT), which was the time 45 years ago when Armstrong opened the spacecraft hatch to begin the first spacewalk on the Moon, NASA TV will replay the restored footage of Armstrong and Aldrin’s historic steps on the lunar surface.

LIVE COVERAGE OF EVENTS: Watch NASA Television

On Tuesday at 12:15am, Eastern Australian time (Monday, July 21 at 10:15am, US EDT), from the agency’s Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, NASA TV will air live coverage of the renaming of the centre’s Operations and Checkout Building in honour of Armstrong, who passed away in 2012.

The renaming ceremony will include NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Kennedy Centre Director and former space shuttle pilot Robert Cabana, as well as Apollo 11’s remaining crewmembers, Collins and Aldrin, and astronaut Jim Lovell, who was the mission’s back-up commander.

International Space Station NASA astronauts Steve Swanson, who is the current Station commander, and Reid Wiseman, also will take part in the ceremony from their orbiting laboratory 415 kilometres above Earth.

Launch of Apollo 11.

Launch of Apollo 11.

The Apollo 11 crew: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin.

The Apollo 11 crew: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin.

Armstrong and Aldrin on the Moon.

Armstrong and Aldrin on the Moon.

Kennedy’s Operations and Checkout Building has played a vital role in NASA’s spaceflight history. It was used during the Apollo program to process and test the command, service and lunar modules. Today, the facility is being used to process and assemble NASA’s Orion spacecraft, which the agency will use to send astronauts to an asteroid in the 2020s and Mars in the 2030s.

On Friday at 8:00am, Eastern Australian time (Thursday, July 24 at 6:00pm US EDT), which is the 45th anniversary of Apollo 11’s return to Earth, the agency will host a panel discussion – called NASA’s Next Giant Leap – from the Comic-Con International in San Diego, California.

Moderated by actor Seth Green, the panel will include Aldrin, NASA Planetary Science Division Director Jim Green, JPL systems engineer Bobak Ferdowsi (the man seen with the unique haircut in mission control during the landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars), and NASA astronaut Mike Fincke, who will talk about Orion and the Space Launch System rocket, which will carry humans on America’s next great adventure in space.

Adapted from information issued by NASA.

What’s up? Night sky for February 2014

WHEN STARTING OUT IN STARGAZING, most people are particularly keen to spot the planets. The problem is, that, to the novice, planets and stars look pretty much alike. The best way to identify planets is to determine their locations in relation to nearby bright stars or the Moon, and then see how watch as they change their positions slightly as each night passes. The information below will help you spot planets using this method.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. Dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Summer Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer at mid latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere.

7 Feb

It is First Quarter Moon today at 6:22am Sydney time. First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

8 Feb

The just-past-half Moon is the north-western sky this evening, and just above it is a group of stars called the Hyades. See if you can spot them – they’re in a triangular formation. The Hyades is an ‘open star cluster’ about 153 light years from Earth, making it the closest such cluster to our Solar System. Although you’ll probably only be able to see a handful of stars with the naked eye (assuming, of course, that you’re not standing under a streetlight), a pair of binoculars will show many more – and long-exposure photographs reveal hundreds.

Just above and to the right of the Moon is a bright orange-coloured star called Aldebaran, although astronomers classify it as a red giant. It is roughly 44 times as big as the Sun and located about 65 light-years from Earth. Think about that – if Aldebaran were at the same distance from us as the Sun, it would appear 44 times as big in the sky. Just as well it’s a long way away!

View showing where the Moon is on the night of 8 February 2014

The Moon (shown bigger than it really is) will be near the star Aldebaran and the star cluster the Hyades on the evening of 8 February. Another star cluster, the Pleiades, is lower in the sky.

11 Feb

By tonight, you’ll see that Moon has moved a fair distance to the right (or east) of the Hyades, as a result of its slow orbit around the Earth. You won’t be able to miss what looks to be a bright star just below the Moon – this is the planet Jupiter. Grab a pair of binoculars and see if you can make out some tiny pinpricks of light on either side of the planet – these are the moons discovered by Galileo; Ganymede, Europa, Io and Callisto. Try to see all four – you might find there are two on each side of Jupiter, or one and three, or all four on one side – depending on where they are in their orbits around the planet. You might find that one or more are missing – this’ll be because that moon or moons is currently hidden behind Jupiter, or in the glare in front of the planet.

View showing the position of the Moon on 11 Feb

On the evening of 10 February, the Moon (not shown to scale) will be just above the planet Jupiter.

12 Feb

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point in its orbit around Earth, apogee, at a distance of 406,231 kilometres.

15 Feb

Full Moon occurs today at 10:53am Sydney time. If you’re out stargazing tonight and look just above (or north of) the Moon, you’ll see a bright blue star. This is Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo. Located about 77.5 light years from Earth, Regulus is not one star but four, grouped into two pairs – with the naked eye we see only the brightest of the four. Multiple star systems are very common throughout the Milky Way galaxy.

20 Feb

Take a look around midnight tonight and you’ll see the Moon just below what appears to be a brightish red star. This is not actually a star but the planet Mars. A small planet, it doesn’t give away much detail even when viewed through a telescope.

Just below the Moon is Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo. Like Regulus, Spica is a member of a multiple star system, in this case a binary (or two) star system. The two stars orbit each other so close together that not even a telescope can show them separated. In fact, so close are they that their mutual gravitational pull distorts each of them from a round shape into an egg shape. The Spica system is about 260 light years from Earth.

View showing the position of the Moon on 20 February

If you’re up after midnight on 20 February, you’ll be greeted by the sight of the Moon with the star Spica above and the planet Mars below.

22 Feb

Tonight it’s Saturn‘s turn, with the ringed planet appearing just below and to the right of the Moon. If you have access to even a small telescope, take a look at Saturn’s amazing rings.

23 Feb

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 4:15am Sydney time. In the early hours of this morning you’ll find the star Antares above and to the right of the Moon. Antares is the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Like Mars, it is a red colour too – in fact, the name Antares means ‘rival of Mars’. Because they’re both in the same part of the sky, this is a good time to compare the two.

26 Feb

If you’re up before dawn, take a look out to the east and you’ll see the thin crescent Moon just above a bright ‘star’ – this is actually the planet Venus, which, aside from the Sun and the Moon, is the brightest object in the sky. Because it is in our morning sky at present, it is called the ‘morning star’. Later in the year it will be visible to west in the evening sky, and will be known as the ‘evening star’.

View showing the position of the Moon on 26 February

This shows the view out to the east less than an hour before sunrise on 26 February. The thin crescent Moon is just above the planet Venus. Very low down on the horizon, and difficult to see, is the planet Mercury. The Moon will be just to the left of Mercury on 28 February.

28 Feb

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit, called perigee, which is the opposite of apogee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 360,438 kilometres. If you’re up and about before dawn, and you have an unobstructed (by buildings, trees, hills etc) view of the eastern horizon, see if you can spot the planet Mercury just to right of the very thin crescent Moon. It won’t be easy to see either Mercury or the Moon, but give it a try.

Here are some more great sources of southern stargazing information:

Melbourne Planetarium

Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? The night sky for January 2014

WHEN STARTING OUT IN STARGAZING, most people are particularly keen to spot the planets, five of which are visible to the naked eye – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The problem is that, to the novice, planets and stars look pretty much alike. An easy way to identify planets is to find them in relation to nearby bright stars or the Moon, and then watch as they change their positions slightly as each night passes. The information below will help you spot planets using this method.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. Dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Summer Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer at mid latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere.

People stargazing using a telescope

There’s plenty to see in the night sky during January 2014.

Jan 1

The Moon is in its ‘new’ phase (the opposite of ‘full’) tonight at 10:14pm. This means that, seen from Earth, it is in the same direction as the Sun, and therefore won’t be seen all night – which is good for stargazing, as the absence of its light will make fainter objects easier to see.

Jan 2

Today at 8:01am, the Moon will be at the closest point – called perigee – in its elliptical orbit around the Earth. The distance between the centres of the two bodies will be 356,921 kilometres.

Jan 4

Today the Earth reaches perihelion, which is the point at which our planet is closest to the Sun during its orbit. The distance separating the two bodies is 147,089,638 kilometres. Note the similarity between the words perigee and perihelion – perigee is used for anything orbiting the Earth (‘peri’ coming from the Greek for ‘around’, while the ‘gee’ part derives from gaia, the Greek word for Earth), while perihelion is used for anything orbiting the Sun (the ‘helion’ part coming from ‘Helios’, the ancient Greek god of the Sun).

There’s a common misconception that the Earth’s changing distance from the Sun (it varies from about 147 million to roughly 152 million kilometres over the course of the year) is responsible for giving us our summers and winters. This is wrong, and a few moments thought shows why. Taking perihelion as an example, the misconception says that with the Earth being at its closest point to the Sun, our planet should experience summer. Well, it’s certainly true that perihelion occurs when it is summertime in the Southern Hemisphere… but what season is it in the Northern Hemisphere? It’s winter. And why is it winter and not summer? Because perihelion has nothing to do with our seasons. The seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation, which sees the Southern Hemisphere tilted toward the Sun at the end of the calendar year, and the Northern Hemisphere tilted away. Six months later it’s the other way around – the north is tilted toward the Sun (and thus the northern summer and southern winter are in the middle of the calendar year) and the south is tilted away.

Jan 8

It is first quarter Moon today at 2:39pm. A few days either side of first quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains throw nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

Jan 12

Tonight, the almost-full Moon will be just below the star Aldebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus. Aldebaran is a red giant star roughly 44 times as big as the Sun, located about 65 light-years from Earth. Have a look to the left of Aldebaran and you’ll see a beautiful, broad group of stars in a V-shape. These are the Hyades. If you have a pair of binoculars, take a look; you’ll be amazed by the beautiful sight of these sparkling stars! (A little further to the left, or west, is an even more beautiful cluster of stars – the Pleiades. See the diagram for its location.)

Diagram of the night sky for January 12

The Moon will be near the star Aldebaran on the evening of January 12. Just above and to the left of Aldebaran is a group of stars called the Hyades – take a look with a pair of binoculars; it’s a beautiful sight. An even better cluster of stars, the Pleiades, is a little further to the left (or west). Below and to the right in this view is the planet Jupiter – the Moon will be close to it on January 15.

Jan 15

Tonight the almost-full Moon will be just above and to the right of what looks like a very bright star, but is in fact the planet Jupiter – the largest planet in our Solar System. If you have a decent pair of binoculars (ie. anything bigger than opera glasses), train them on Jupiter and you should be able to see its shape and perhaps even some of the ‘banding’ of the atmosphere (the planet’s different weather zones). You should also be able to see up to four tiny, bright pinpricks of light – these are the famous moons discovered by Galileo. You might see one or two on one side of Jupiter, and the others on the other side. (If you take a look in the late evening on January 18, you’ll see them all on the same side.)

Jan 16

Full Moon occurs today at 3:52pm. When the Moon is full, it rises in the east around the same time as the Sun is setting in the west, which means it will be visible all night long. This is great for finding your way around in the dark, but the Moon’s glare is generally not welcomed by stargazers as it makes fainter objects harder or impossible to see.

Still on the subject of the Moon, today at 12:54pm it will reach apogee (the opposite of perigee), which is the farthest point in its orbit around the Earth. The distance separating the centres of the two bodies will be 406,536 kilometres.

Jan 23

If you’re awake around midnight, look out to the east and you’ll see the Moon with a reddish star just below it. That ‘star’ is actually the planet Mars. Mars is a small planet, so you need at least a medium-sized backyard telescope to get any decent sort of view of it. But even as you gaze at it with the naked eye, stop and think for a moment – right now there are two missions on their way to Mars (NASA’s MAVEN and India’s Mars Orbiter), plus there are three orbiters and two operational rovers already working at or on the Red Planet. When the two new spacecraft reach their destination in September 2014, Mars is going to become a busy place!

Diagram of the evening sky for January 23

The Moon and Mars will be near each other in the sky in the early hours of January 23.

Jan 24

It is last quarter Moon today at 4:19pm. When you take a look tonight, you’ll notice that Moon has moved a bit since last night (as a result of its slow crawl around its orbit), and Mars is now above and to its left. But directly above the Moon is a bright star called Spica, which is the brightest star in the constellation Virgo. Spica is a blue giant star located about 260 light-years from Earth.

Jan 26

If you’re awake in the early hours after midnight, you’ll be rewarded with the view of the just-less-than-half Moon down near the eastern horizon, with a brightish ‘star’ just above it. That’s not a star, it’s the planet Saturn. If you have access to a small telescope, train it on Saturn and you’ll its magnificent system of rings.

Jan 29

If you’re up before the sunrise today, look out to the east and you’ll see a very thin crescent Moon. Just below it is what looks to be a very bright star, but is in fact the planet Venus. After the Sun and the Moon, Venus is the brightest object in the sky.

Diagram of the morning sky for January 29

The thin crescent Moon will be near Venus in the morning sky on January 29. (Venus is not shown to scale in this diagram.)

Jan 30

The Moon reaches perigee today, with the distance between the centres of the Earth and Moon being 357,079 kilometres.

Jan 31

New Moon occurs for the second time this month, at 8:39am

Here are some more great sources of southern stargazing information:

Melbourne Planetarium

Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for February 2013

Night sky on February 3, 2013

Saturn and the Moon will appear near each other on February 3, 2013.

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Standard Time zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

Feb 3

If you’re a night owl, look out to the east after midnight and you’ll see the Moon near the horizon. Below and to its right is what seems to be a bright star. It’s actually the planet Saturn. If you have access to even a small telescope, take a look. Its rings never fail to entrance. The gas giant planet has 62 confirmed natural satellites (ie. moons), and one artificial satellite – the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft, which has been exploring the Saturnian system since 2004. Saturn is presently about 1,455 million kilometres from Earth.

Feb 4

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 12:56am Australian Eastern Daylight Time (Feb 3, 13:56 Universal Time).

Feb 5

This evening, the Moon will appear close to the star Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Antares is a red supergiant star, about 880 times bigger and 10,000 times brighter than our Sun! It is about 550 light-years from Earth.

Feb 7

Today the Moon will be at the closest point in its orbit around Earth, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies will be 365,318 kilometres.

Feb 10

New Moon occurs today at 6:20pm Australian Eastern Daylight Time (07:20 Universal Time).

Feb 12

Just after sunset this evening, you might be able to see a very thin crescent Moon low on the horizon due west. To its left will be a brightish-looking ‘star’; it’s actually the planet Mercury. And just to Mercury’s left will be the ruddy-coloured planet Mars. Today Mercury is about 161 million kilometres from Earth, while Mars is about 348 million kilometres away.

Diagram showing the Moon and Jupiter

For stargazers in southern Australia, the Moon will pass in front of Jupiter on February 18, 2013.

Feb 18

There will be a major sky event this evening for those in the southern half of Australia! – the Moon will appear to move in front of the planet Jupiter. This is called an occultation (where ‘to occult’ means to ‘make go dark’). You’ll see the Moon slowly approaching Jupiter (which, to the naked eye, just looks like a bright star). Then, all of a sudden, as the Moon’s edge ‘reaches’ the planet, Jupiter will wink out. A short while later, after the Moon has moved on a bit (you’re actually watching it trundle along in its orbit), Jupiter will reappear on the other side.

Timings for the beginning of the event, in Standard (that is, non-Daylight Saving time – please adjust for your location if necessary) for capital cities are:

Adelaide: 10:00pm

Hobart: 10:22pm

Melbourne 10:33pm

Perth: 7:39pm

Unfortunately, the other capital cities will miss out.

Incidentally, it is First Quarter Moon this morning at 7:31am Australian Eastern Daylight Time (Feb 27, 20:31 Universal Time). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

Feb 19

In tonight’s evening sky, to the northwest you’ll see the Moon, and to it’s left will be a bright star. And it really is a star this time, not a planet. It’s Aldebaran, the brightest star in the constellation Taurus. Just to Aldebaran’s left, you might be able to see a wide grouping of stars (binoculars will help). This is called the Hyades star cluster.

And today the Moon is at the farthest point in its orbit around the Earth, called apogee, at a distance of 404,472 kilometres.

Feb 25

Just near the Moon in this evening’s sky, will be the star Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo.

Feb 26

Full Moon occurs today at 7:26am Australian Eastern Daylight Time (Feb 25, 20:26 Universal Time).

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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Surveyor 7: Setting the scene for Apollo

PRIOR TO THE SUCCESSFUL Apollo lunar landings, NASA sent a series of uncrewed probes to the Moon to learn more about the lunar surface. The last of these, Surveyor 7, was launched 45 years ago today.

A model of the Surveyor 7 spacecraft

A model of the Surveyor 7 spacecraft

Surveyor 7 was the last of the original series of Surveyor moon landers of the late 1960s and was dedicated primarily to scientific investigations. By 1968, the spacecraft’s predecessors had already performed much of the investigative work into the feasibility of a future human mission to the moon.

Surveyor 7’s mission was decidedly unique – it was the only spacecraft of the series to land in the lunar highland region. And it had the most extensive set of instruments, with which it conducted a number of scientific experiments on the lunar soil. Findings from Surveyor 7 were fairly consistent with earlier missions except that chemical analysis of the highland crust showed it to have less iron than samples from the lunar maria.

More information: Surveyor 7

Adapted from information issued by NASA.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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What’s up? Night sky for January 2013

Except where indicated, all of the phenomena described here can be seen with the unaided eye. And unless otherwise specified, dates and times are for the Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT) zone, and sky directions are from the point of view of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere.

January 2

If you’re an early riser, take a look out to the north-west and high up you’ll see a bright star near the Moon. This is Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo. Actually, Regulus is not one star but four, grouped into two pairs. Multiple star systems are very common throughout the Milky Way galaxy.

The Moon will appear near the bright star Regulus on January 2.

The Moon will appear near the bright star Regulus on January 2.

And today the Earth reaches perihelion in its orbit around the Sun. Perihelion is the point in a solar orbit when the body in question (eg. Earth) is at its closest to the Sun. Perihelion occurs today at midday AEDT, at a distance between Earth and Sun of about 147,098,089 kilometres. (The opposite of perihelion is aphelion, which for Earth will occur on July 5, 2012 at a distance of about 152,097,351 kilometres.)

January 5

It is Last Quarter Moon today at 2:58pm Sydney time (03:58 Universal Time).

January 6

If you’re up very early this morning (from 2:00am onwards), you’ll see a bright star appearing to almost touch the Moon. This Spica, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo; it is a blue giant star about 260 light-years from Earth. And don’t miss tomorrow’s morning sight…

January 7

This morning, the Moon has moved along a bit in its orbit, and no longer appears to be near Spica. Instead, it appears to hover just above what appears to be another bright star, but which is instead the planet Saturn. If you have a small telescope, or can borrow someone else’s, take a look at Saturn – you’ll see the huge rings tilted nicely to our line of sight, and – depending on the power of your telescope – you might also be able to make out a couple of the planet’s moons, although they’ll only look like bright pinpricks of light.

January 7: If you're an early riser, take a look at the Moon and you'll see what appears to be bright star just below it. Well, that's actually not a star but the ringed planet Saturn.

January 7: If you’re an early riser, take a look at the Moon and you’ll see what appears to be bright star just below it. Well, that’s actually not a star but the ringed planet Saturn.

January 9

Again, the Moon has moved along in its orbit, and is now quite distant from both Spica and Saturn. This morning it appears near the red star Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius. Antares is a red supergiant star about 883 times bigger than our Sun, located about 470 light-years from us.

January 10

This morning the Moon, now a thin crescent, can be seen above what looks like a very bright star. Actually, it’s the planet Venus, low on the horizon. Venus will remain low in the east before dawn until the middle of February, when it will have moved too close to the Sun to be visible.

The Moon today will be at the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee. The distance between the two bodies today will be 360,046 kilometres.

January 12

New Moon occurs today at 6:44am Sydney time (19:44 Universal Time on January 11).

January 14-27

If you have dark skies and are a little bit lucky, you might spot a few meteors between these dates, emanating from the southern sky. The Eta Carinid meteor shower occurs at this same time every year, but it’s not a very good one compared with others – you might be lucky to see a few meteors per hour, between midnight and dawn.

January 19

It is First Quarter Moon today at 10:45am Sydney time (23:45 Universal Time on January 18). First Quarter is a good time to look at the Moon through a telescope, as the sunlight angle means the craters and mountains are throwing nice shadows, making it easier to get that 3D effect.

January 21: The Moon, Jupiter and the Pleiades star cluster will all be close together in the evening sky.

January 21: The Moon, Jupiter and the Pleiades star cluster will all be close together in the evening sky.

January 21

In tonight’s evening sky, the Moon will be situated quite near a famous cluster of stars, called the Pleiades or Seven sisters. When the Moon is not around and the sky is dark, most people can make out 6 to 7 of the Pleiades stars, although eagle-eyed stargazers can see a few more. With the Moon tonight being more than half full, it might be a little harder to see them. But if you have a pair of binoculars or a small telescope, take a look and you’ll be rewarded with a lovely sight – there are actually hundreds of stars (only some of them are visible through small optical instruments) in this beautiful “open star cluster“, and it is also filled with beautiful whispy gas clouds, although the stars and the gas are not actually related to each other—we just happen to be seeing them at a time when the stars are drifting through the gas.

And what’s that bright object just to the right (east) of both the Moon and the Pleiades? That’s actually the planet Jupiter.

January 22

Today the Moon will reach the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, apogee, at a distance of 405,312 kilometres. Take a look at it, and you’ll see what looks like a bright star just above it – it’s actually the planet Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System. Even a pair of binoculars will begin to show its size and shape, as well as up to four of its moons. A small telescope will reveal the different cloud bands that colour its upper atmosphere.

January 27

Full Moon occurs today at 3:38pm Sydney time (04:38 Universal Time).

There’s more great night sky viewing information at Melbourne Planetarium’s Skynotes site.

If you have any questions or comments on the night sky, we’d be happy to answer them. Please use the Feedback Form below. Happy stargazing!

Images courtesy IAU.

Get SpaceInfo.com.au daily updates by RSS or email! Click the RSS Feed link at the top right-hand corner of this page, and then save the RSS Feed page to your bookmarks. Or, enter your email address (privacy assured) and we’ll send you daily updates. Or follow us on Twitter, @spaceinfo_oz

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Total eclipse of the Sun – November 14

totally eclipsed Sun

A total eclipse of the Sun will be seen in far north Queensland on the morning of November 14, 2012.

ALL ACROSS AUSTRALIA tomorrow, November 14, stargazers will have their gaze fixed on the Sun and the Moon as we experience the first total solar eclipse visible from Australia’s shores for ten years.

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon, orbiting the Earth, moves in between the Sun and the Earth, blocking the light of the Sun. If the angles are slightly off, we see a partial eclipse. If the angles are just right, those lucky enough to be located along the ‘path of totality’ will experience a total eclipse.

And that’s what’s going to happen tomorrow morning. The path of totality will begin in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory before sweeping across the Gulf of Carpentaria. Reaching far north Queensland, it will cut a narrow path across the state, reaching Cairns and Port Douglas on the coast before heading out into the Pacific Ocean.

For those in the Cairns area, the eclipse will begin with the Moon taking its first ‘bite’ out of the Sun at around 5:40am Queensland time. Totality will occur around 6:38am and will last for two minutes, before the Moon begins to slide off the face of the Sun.

Those in other parts of the country will experience a partial eclipse, beginning and ending at different times according to location. More details about when and where the eclipse can be seen are given in the links below.

It is important to remember that looking at the Sun at any time, eclipse or no eclipse, is dangerous and can lead to permanent eye damage. If you intend to watch the event, you need to take appropriate precautions – ways in which to safely experience it are given the links below too.

After Wednesday, the next total solar eclipse for Australia will be in the year 2028, when the path of totality will zoom right through the middle of the continent and go right through Sydney.

I hope you have a happy and safe eclipse viewing experience tomorrow!

ECLIPSE RESOURCES

Fantastic solar eclipse info from the Astronomical Association of Queensland

When, where and how to see it

Solar viewing safety advice from the Queensland government

Solar viewing safety advice from NASA

How to build a pinhole camera

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The day we touched the Moon

IN TRIBUTE TO THE LATE Neil Armstrong, a temporary display case was set up in the James S. McDonnell Space Hangar at the Smithsonian’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Washington, D.C. The display included the gloves and visor that Armstrong wore when he first stepped on the surface of the Moon July 20, 1969. They were among the most visible parts of his Apollo 11 spacesuit and were designed specifically to deal with the hazards of working on the lunar surface.

The gloves have blue silicone fingertips and stainless-steel fabric that wraps the hands with a long white gauntlet, with instructions printed on the left one. The visor provided the protection astronauts needed to survive in the absence of the sun-filtering effects of the Earth’s atmosphere. These objects were transferred to the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum from NASA in 1971.

Gloves worn by astronaut Neil Armstrong

These gloves were made for and worn by Neil Armstrong during the Apollo 11 mission in 1969. They are made of Chromel-R fabric with insulation for protection against extreme hot and cold, while the fingertips consist of a rubber/neoprene compound to provide sensitivity.

Visor Assembly worn by Neil Armstrong

The A7-L Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly was worn by Neil Armstrong during the Apollo 11 mission and consists of a polycarbonate shell. This helmet was worn over the pressure helmet and provided the protection needed during moonwalk periods.

 

Spacesuits worn by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin

The spacesuits worn by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

 

Apollo 11 Command Module

The Apollo 11 Command Module, Columbia, was the living quarters for the three-person crew during most of the first manned lunar-landing mission. This Command Module, no. 107, manufactured by North American Rockwell, was one of three parts of the complete Apollo spacecraft. The other two parts were the Service Module and the Lunar Module, nicknamed "Eagle." The Service Module contained the main spacecraft propulsion system and consumables while the Lunar Module was the two-person craft used by Armstrong and Aldrin to descend to the moon's surface July 20. The Command Module is the only portion of the spacecraft to return to Earth. It was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1970 following a NASA-sponsored tour of USA cities.

Adapted from information issued by the Smithsonian Institution. Photos by Dane Penland, Mark Avino and Eric Long, National Air and Space Museum’

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Neil A. Armstrong: 1930-2012

Neil Armstrong, photographed inside the lunar module after landing on the Moon

Neil Armstrong, photographed inside the lunar module after landing on the Moon

THE FOLLOWING is a statement from the Armstrong family regarding the death of former test pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong. He was 82.

“We are heartbroken to share the news that Neil Armstrong has passed away following complications resulting from cardiovascular procedures.”

“Neil was our loving husband, father, grandfather, brother and friend.”

“Neil Armstrong was also a reluctant American hero who always believed he was just doing his job. He served his Nation proudly, as a navy fighter pilot, test pilot, and astronaut. He also found success back home in his native Ohio in business and academia, and became a community leader in Cincinnati.”

“He remained an advocate of aviation and exploration throughout his life and never lost his boyhood wonder of these pursuits.”

“As much as Neil cherished his privacy, he always appreciated the expressions of good will from people around the world and from all walks of life.”

“While we mourn the loss of a very good man, we also celebrate his remarkable life and hope that it serves as an example to young people around the world to work hard to make their dreams come true, to be willing to explore and push the limits, and to selflessly serve a cause greater than themselves.”

“For those who may ask what they can do to honor Neil, we have a simple request. Honor his example of service, accomplishment and modesty, and the next time you walk outside on a clear night and see the moon smiling down at you, think of Neil Armstrong and give him a wink.”

The following is a statement from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden regarding the death of former test pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong.

“On behalf of the entire NASA family, I would like to express my deepest condolences to Carol and the rest of Armstrong family on the passing of Neil Armstrong. As long as there are history books, Neil Armstrong will be included in them, remembered for taking humankind’s first small step on a world beyond our own.”

“Besides being one of America’s greatest explorers, Neil carried himself with a grace and humility that was an example to us all. When President Kennedy challenged the nation to send a human to the moon, Neil Armstrong accepted without reservation.”

“As we enter this next era of space exploration, we do so standing on the shoulders of Neil Armstrong. We mourn the passing of a friend, fellow astronaut and true American hero.”

Additional information about Armstrong is available on the Web at:

http://www.nasa.gov/

http://www.neilarmstronginfo.com/

Adapted from information issued by NASA.

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Partial lunar eclipse on Monday

The Moon, partially eclipsed.

Monday, June 4, will see a partial eclipse of the Moon take place.

FOR THOSE WHO ARE ON GOOD TERMS with the weather gods, on Monday, June 4, there will be a partial eclipse of the Moon to enjoy.

A lunar eclipse happens when the Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow. If it goes through the middle of the shadow, it is a total lunar eclipse. If it “cuts the corner” of the shadow, we get a partial eclipse.

There are usually two or three lunar eclipses each year, but they’re not always visible from the same place. From any particular spot on Earth, you might see one or two per year.

The Moon will begin to move into the darkest part of Earth’s shadow at 8:00pm, Sydney time on Monday, June 4. In Perth, it will already be underway by the time the Moon rises. Mid-eclipse will be at 9:00pm Sydney time, and the whole thing will be over by 10:05pm, Sydney time.

At mid-eclipse, about 40% of the Moon’s diameter will be covered by Earth’s shadow – it might even go a reddish colour from sunlight bent through Earth’s atmosphere. Then the Moon will slowly move out of the shadow.

As long as the weather is clear, you won’t have any difficulty spotting the Moon and the eclipse. You won’t need a telescope or binoculars to see it –  just your own eyes are enough. And unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to watch.

They also happen slowly, so the best idea is to go outside every 15 minutes or so and see how it has changed.

Here’s a video from NASA that shows what stargazers in North America can expect to see:

After this, the next big eclipse for Australians will be a total eclipse of the Sun on the morning of Nov 14, 2012 – the last one to be seen in Australia until the year 2028! Totality will be seen only along a narrow swathe of far north Queensland near Cairns. Everyone else will see a partial eclipse.

Story by Jonathan Nally, editor, SpaceInfo.com.au

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