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Aussie tech helps telescopes “see in the dark”

NGC 300

Australian technology will soon enable astronomers to get a clearer view of distant galaxies, by reducing the effect of the natural airglow of the sky.

AUSTRALIAN SCIENTISTS have made a major breakthrough in the drive to improve their view of the night sky and greatly increase the efficiency of ground-based telescopes.

While the night sky looks dark to the naked eye, to an astronomer working at infrared wavelengths the air actually glows brightly, drowning out the view of distant astronomical bodies.

This happens because molecules in our atmosphere emit their own infrared radiation, swamping the faint infrared light coming in from deep space.

What astronomers have needed is a way to filter out the atmospheric emission while letting through the infrared waves from stars and galaxies.

Traditional filters can only remove selected wavelengths at a time. What if a system could be devised that removes many at once?

Enter the “photonic lantern” and high-tech, wavelength-suppressing optical fibres, both the brainchild of Professor Joss Bland-Hawthorn (University of Sydney) and the team he leads.

The complex system, under development since 2004, recently underwent its first real test under the night sky—at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales—and passed with flying colours.

The system removed the unwanted air emissionwavelengths just as planned, while letting through the infrared from deep space. In effect, it made the sky look darker and clearer.

Joss Bland-Hawthorn

Professor Joss Bland-Hawthorn leads the team that has developed the photonic lantern and wavelength-suppressing optical fibres. Photo courtesy University of Sydney.

The results of the field test were published this week in the scientific journal, Nature Communications.

Looking deeper into space

The optical fibres are specially made with internal patterns that act to filter out the unwanted wavelengths, while the photonic lantern combines the output from multiple fibres. That output can then be fed into a spectrograph, a device that splits light into separate wavelengths and enables analysis to be made of the chemical nature of the stuff (stars, galaxies, nebulae) that emitted the original infrared light.

Infrared wavelengths are very important because visible wavelength light emitted from astronomical bodies when the universe was young, has by now been redshifted into the infrared by the expansion of the universe. So in order to study the universe’s past, astronomers need to see at infrared wavelengths.

The first operational device to use the new photonics was commissioned earlier this year on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. This prototype instrument, called GNOSIS, paves the way to a more powerful instrument now under development by the AAO and the University of Sydney. Called SUNESIS, it will be operational by the end of 2012.

“This will mean we’ve gone from project inception to completion within 12 months, a remarkable effort,” says Bland-Hawthorn.

And they’re also aiming to have the technology ready soon for use on other major telescopes throughout the world.

“In particular, we’re aiming at the current 8- to 10-metre class of telescopes—the largest in the world—and then the new generation of 30-metre telescopes that are currently in the design phase,” says Bland-Hawthorn.

When installed on such large telescopes, the system will enable astronomers to see five times deeper into space in the infrared part of the spectrum, which corresponds to a 100-fold increase in the volume of space covered. And that means thousands more targets for their telescopes.

And that’s not the end of it. Space-based applications also beckon, and the University of Sydney team aims to test out other uses of the photonics technology aboard a micro-satellite to be launched in 2012, as well as with high-altitude balloon flights in collaboration with NASA.

Story by Jonathan Nally. Galaxy image courtesy ESO.

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New Australian astronomy centre

Australia from space

Astronomy is booming in Australia, and the new Macquarie Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics Research Centre aims to be among the best in the nation.

THE MACQUARIE ASTRONOMY, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics Research Centre (MQRC AAA) has been officially launched.

The research centre, led by Professor Quentin Parker, has ties to over 100 national and international universities, observatories, research institutions and commercial companies in 23 countries.

This solid network will provide for effective multi-national collaborative research programs and partnerships with some of the world’s leading institutions.

With its planned growth in research, the centre is predicted to soon be among the top four astronomy cohorts in Australia, alongside the Australian National University, the University of Sydney and Swinburne University.

Apart from many exciting mainstream astrophysics research programs and strong growth in the emerging field of cutting-edge astrophotonics, the centre has many other major projects already underway.

One example is the Macquarie University-led $2.4 million dollar ARC supported project ‘Space to Grow’ which combines astronomers with educational, ICT and science teaching experts to engage high school students in science using the hook of astronomy.

At the cutting edge

Macquarie has emerged as a world leader in the discovery and study of planetary nebulae in our galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud. Knowledge of planetary nebulae—the death throes of many types of stars—is important to understand the evolution of stars, the spread of chemical elements through space, among others fields.

The Ring Nebula

Planetary nebulae are a focus of research at Macquarie

“Macquarie is playing a key role in unravelling the complexities of these fascinating phenomena,” Professor Parker told SpaceInfo.

“We are also strong in galactic archaeology—the ‘genetic’ finger-printing of vast numbers of stars in our galaxy to expose the fossil record of how the Milky Way formed and evolved,” he added.

Radio astronomy is another field where Macquarie intends to increase its profile.

“We have a very strong strategic vision to expand our expertise and involvement in radio astronomy,” said Professor Parker. “This is a tremendous strength of Australian astronomy and, as with our extremely strong links with the AAO, we want to take advantage of our close physical proximity to the ATNF/CASS to develop close-links and projects.”

One of the most exciting technologies in astronomy at the moment is astrophotonics. This is the use of special optical techniques, including fibre optics, to improve the sensitivity and efficiency of major telescopes.

“We are involved in several major projects associated with cutting edge astronomical instrumentation and are working closely with the Australian Astronomical Observatory and Sydney University to create a powerful astrophotonics triumvirate in Sydney,” said Professor Parker.

Collaborative effort

The new MQRC AAA will also have a strong focus on building links to the Indigenous community by engaging the Aboriginal Astronomy Research Group, a group dedicated to researching the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Indigenous Australians.

Professor Parker has been overwhelmed with the support received in order to make this launch possible.

“Thanks must go to Macquarie itself for so strongly supporting astronomy over the last eight years and allowing our potential to be realised,” said Parker.

“We must also thank the Australian Astronomical Observatory, our major external partner and the Australian Research Council whose support has been crucial to our spectacular growth.”

The collaborations that this new centre will encourage are sure to see a strong growth in the outstanding research outputs in astronomy, astrophysics and astrophotonics by Macquarie University in the future.

Adapted from information issued by Macquarie University. Images courtesy NASA.

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