Weekly space gallery for January 28, 2014

WELCOME TO OUR WEEKLY COLLECTION of the best astronomy and space exploration images taken by observatories around the world and in space. Each week we’ll bring you a selection of our favourite recent images – if you like them (and we hope you do), please share them with your friends. And don’t forget you can elect to have this and other stories emailed direct to your inbox, just by signing up to our free email service – see the Subscribe box in the column at right.

So, let’s get started on this week’s images.

1. Disruptive black hole

A black hole lives at the heart of the white galaxy in the middle of this image. Extensive clouds of hot gas, detected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite and coloured purple, should be the raw material from which countless new stars would be born. But jets of energy emanating from the vicinity of the black hole have disrupted the gas, forming two cavities on either side of the centre and sending out shock waves that prevent the gas from clumping and forming stars. The galaxy in question is called RX J1532+3201, and it is 3.9 billion light years from Earth. Image credit: X-ray: NASA / CXC / Stanford / J.Hlavacek-Larrondo et al, Optical: NASA / ESA / STScI / M.Postman & CLASH team.

Gas surrounding galaxy RX J1532+3201

Hot gas surrounds galaxy RX J1532+3201.

 

2. Titan, top and bottom

This black and white image of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, was taken through a special infrared filter to bring out detail in its atmosphere. Visible at the far north (top) is a haze that stands up above the bulk of atmosphere, while near the south pole is the South Polar Vortex – thought to be an uplifted mass of air caused by a change in the seasons. This image was taken by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 2.5 million kilometres. Cassini has been orbiting Saturn since 2004. Courtesy NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute.

Titan

Haze is visible in Titan’s north, while a polar vortex is in the south.

 

3. Brown dwarf revealed

Astronomers have used special techniques to block out the light of a star (leaving a speckled appearance) to reveal a dim brown dwarf that is in orbit around it. Brown dwarfs are bodies at are two big to be planets, but two small to be proper stars. They give off a relatively small amount of heat. The astronomers are particularly interested in studying the brown dwarf’s atmosphere, by analysing the light that reflects from it. “This object is old and cold and will ultimately garner much attention as one of the most well-studied and scrutinised brown dwarfs detected to date,” says Justin R. Crepp of the University of Notre Dame. “With continued follow-up observations, we can use it as a laboratory to test theoretical atmospheric models. Eventually we want to directly image and acquire the spectrum of Earth-like planets. Then, from the spectrum, we should be able to tell what the planet is made out of, what its mass is, radius, age, etc., basically all relevant physical properties.” Courtesy Crepp et al. 2014, ApJ.

Brown dwarf image

By blocking most of the light of its parent star, a faint brown dwarf is revealed.

 

4. A gallery of galaxies

The Hubble Space Telescope was used to make this long-exposure image of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744, which comprises the bright galaxies in the foreground. Fainter background galaxies appear to have become distorted as their light is bent by Abell 2744’s gravity. Astronomers have counted up to 3,000 of these background galaxies in the full-size version of this image alone. Courtesy NASA / ESA.

Galaxy cluster Abell 2744

A long Hubble exposure of galaxy cluster Abell 2744 also reveals other galaxies in the far background.

 

5. We have lift-off

NASA’s newest Tracking and Data Relay System Satellite (TDRSS) was launched on January 23 from the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida. There are several TDRSS satellites circling Earth, through which NASA can communicate with spacecraft in Earth orbit. They are not directly involved in communicating with deep space missions. Courtesy NASA / Tony Grey.

Time exposure of TDRSS launch

Lift off of NASA’s latest TDRSS satellite.

 

6. A supernova surprise

A supernova was spotted in galaxy M82 on January 21, causing great excitement amongst astronomers. M82 is only 12 million light years from Earth, making the supernova (called SN 2014J) one of the closest in many years. Many observatories broke into their normal scheduled operations to make observations of the supernova, including NASA’s Swift orbiting observatory. This picture, sensitive to ultraviolet light, shows the supernova standing out brightly against the amorphous background of the rest of M82. Courtesy NASA / Swift / P. Brown, TAMU.

Swift image of galaxy M82 and its supernova

A Swift image of galaxy M82 and its supernova.

Story by Jonathan Nally.

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