Name Pluto’s moons

Image showing Pluto's known moons

This image, taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, shows five moons orbiting the distant, icy dwarf planet Pluto. The green circle marks the unnamed moon, designated P5, as photographed by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 on July 7 2012. The unnamed moon P4 was uncovered in Hubble imagery in 2011.

THE DISCOVERER OF PLUTO’S two tiniest moons are inviting the public to help select names for the new moons. By tradition, the moons of Pluto have names associated with Hades and the underworld.

“The Greeks were great storytellers, and they have given us a colourful cast of characters to work with,” said Mark Showalter, Senior Research Scientist at the Carl Sagan Centre of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California.

Pluto has five moons – Charon (discovered 1978), Nix and Hydra (discovered 2005), and two known simply as P4 and P5, discovered in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Astronomers are now looking for names for P4 and P5.

Moons of the underworld

All the bodies in the Pluto system are named after mythological figures of the underworld – Pluto, the god of the underworld; Charon, the ferryman of the dead; Nix, Greek goddess of darkness and night; and Hydra, the nine-headed serpent that battled Hercules.

Showalter and the teams of astronomers who made the discoveries will select two names based on the outcome of the voting. Like Pluto’s three other moons, Charon, Nix and Hydra, they need to be assigned names derived from Greek or Roman mythology.

Artist's impression of the New Horizons spacecraft passing Pluto in 2015

Artist’s impression of the New Horizons spacecraft passing Pluto in 2015.

Beginning today, people can vote by visiting http://plutorocks.seti.org/, and select from a list of suggest ‘underworld’ names.

Visitors to the website will also be able to submit their own suggestions. These will be reviewed by the team and could be added to the ballot. Voting will end February 25, 2013. The final names will be announced after their formal approval by the International Astronomical Union.

First mission to Pluto

P4 was discovered in 2011 in images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. P5 was discovered a year later during a more intensive search for previously unseen objects orbiting the distant, dwarf planet. The moons are only 20 to 30 kilometres across.

Currently, Pluto is receiving special scrutiny by astronomers, because NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft is slated to arrive there in July 2015.

Launched in 2006, the craft is carrying some of the ashes of the man who discovered Pluto in 1930, Clyde Tombaugh.

A Google+ Hangout is scheduled on February 11 at 11:00am US PST (19:00 GMT) with two of the scientists involved in the discovery. Mark Showalter is from the SETI Institute, and Hal Weaver is a researcher at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

Questions from viewers will be taken during the event using Twitter hashtag #PlutoRocks, the SETI Institute Facebook page and the Google hangout.

Adapted from information issued by the SETI Institute. Pluto moons image courtesy NASA; ESA; M. Showalter, SETI Institute. New Horizons graphic courtesy NASA.

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