Dawn mission reaches asteroid Vesta

Artist's impression of the Dawn mission

The Dawn spacecraft has spent almost four years tracking down the asteroid Vesta, located in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. (Note that this artist's impression is not intended to be accurate, as it shows both Vesta and Dawn's next destination, Ceres, in the one frame, as well as many other small asteroids. In reality, these rocky bodies are nowhere near each other.)

NASA’S DAWN SPACECRAFT has become the first probe ever to enter orbit around an object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Dawn will study the asteroid, named Vesta, for a year before departing for a second destination, a dwarf planet named Ceres, in July 2012. Observations will provide unprecedented data to help scientists understand the earliest chapter of our solar system. The data also will help pave the way for future human space missions.

“Today, we celebrate an incredible exploration milestone as a spacecraft enters orbit around an object in the main asteroid belt for the first time,” NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said.

“Dawn’s study of the asteroid Vesta marks a major scientific accomplishment and also points the way to the future destinations where people will travel in the coming years.”

“President Obama has directed NASA to send astronauts to an asteroid by 2025, and Dawn is gathering crucial data that will inform that mission,” he added.

Dawn image of Vesta

This image of Vesta was taken with Dawn's navigation camera on July 9, 2011, from a distance of 41,000 kilometres. Once science operations begin, we will see very high-resolution images of the asteroid's surface.

Entering orbit

The spacecraft relayed information to confirm it entered Vesta’s orbit, but the precise time this milestone occurred is unknown at this time.

The time of Dawn’s capture depended on Vesta’s mass and gravity, which only has been estimated until now. The asteroid’s mass determines the strength of its gravitational pull.

If Vesta is more massive, its gravity is stronger, meaning it pulled Dawn into orbit sooner. If the asteroid is less massive, its gravity is weaker and it would have taken the spacecraft longer to achieve orbit.

According to the Dawn Twitter feed, the spacecraft has achieved an orbit about 16,000 kilometres from Vesta.

With Dawn now in orbit, the science team can take more accurate measurements of Vesta’s gravity and gather more accurate timeline information.

More information — see our earlier story on the Dawn mission, complete with videos.

Adapted from information issued by NASA / JPL. Images courtesy NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA / MPS / DLR / IDA.

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