Saturn’s tiny Trojan moon

Saturns' moon Helene

Saturn's 33-kilometre-wide moon Helene, imaged by NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of around 19,000 kilometres.

THIS BLACK AND WHITE image shows Helene, one of the smaller of Saturn’s 62 confirmed moons, seen during a relatively close encounter by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft on March 3, 2010. The grey background is the atmosphere of Saturn.

Helene circles Saturn in the same orbit as the much larger moon, Dione, but ahead of it, making it a “Trojan” moon. A Trojan moon is one that is a location where the gravitational pull of the parent planet and another body (Dione, in this case) balance out, so it always stays in the same relative position. That position is known as a Lagrangian point.

The tiny moon was discovered by astronomers Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. It was provisionally designated S/1980 S 6 (meaning it was the sixth new moon of Saturn to be discovered that year), and in 1988 was officially named after Helen of Troy, who in Greek mythology was the granddaughter of Cronus (Saturn).

Helene is just 33 kilometres across at its widest point. It orbits Saturn at a distance of 377,000 kilometres (roughly the same average distance between the Earth and the Moon) and takes about 2.74 Earth days to complete one revolution.

At the time Cassini snapped the image, the spacecraft was about 19,000 kilometres from Helene, which means we can see detail down to about 113 metres.

Images courtesy NASA / JPL / Space Science Institute.

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